USPSC - OTI Senior Management Advisor - Worldwide (Intermittent)
Agency for International Development, Washington D.C. | Published March 13, 2017 - Deadline March 28, 2017
Final compensation will be negotiated within the GS-15 equivalent level based upon the selected candidate's salary history, qualifications, previous relevant experience and work history, and educational background as reported on AID-302-3. For selected candidates whose salary has been established on a Federal pay scale (i.e. General Schedule) or its equivalent, the base salary (not including locality pay) of their grade/step will be the basis of the salary negotiation. The selected candidate will be eligible for applicable allowances as described in Section VI on the same basis as U.S. government employees if assigned temporary duty in foreign areas. As this is a Worldwide, non-locality position, incumbents who do not live in the D.C. metropolitan area will be provided with travel and/or per diem if they are required to work in Washington, D.C. Incumbents will be provided with travel and/or per diem for all other USAID/OTI travel assignments as well.
6. PERIOD OF PERFORMANCE: One year, with four one-year option periods.
START DATE: Within 45 days of receiving notification that required security clearance has been obtained.
The Personal Services Contractor hired under this contract will provide up to a maximum of 250 workdays of services on an annual basis. The specific projects, as well as dates, number of days and locations to be worked, will be determined by mutual agreement between the contract employee and his/her OTI supervisor according to the programmatic needs of OTI. There is no obligation by OTI to provide assignments for a minimum number of days, and the contractor is free to provide "blackout" dates during which he or she will not be available to accept assignments.
7. PLACE OF PERFORMANCE: Worldwide
8. SECURITY LEVEL REQUIRED: Secret
9. STATEMENT OF DUTIES
USAID's Office of Transition Initiatives (OTI) is seeking highly motivated, highly qualified individuals who want the opportunity to help support rapid international transition programs for priority conflict-prone countries. Created in 1994 as a distinct operating unit within USAID, OTI helps local partners advance peace and democracy in politically-transitioning countries. In support of U.S. foreign policy, OTI seizes emerging windows of opportunity in the political landscape to promote stability, peace, and democracy by catalyzing local initiatives through adaptive and agile programming.
Countries experiencing a significant political transition in the midst of a disaster or emerging from civil conflict have unique needs that cannot be fully addressed by traditional disaster relief. Timely and effective assistance to promote and consolidate peaceful, democratic advances can make the difference between a successful or a failed transition. OTI assists in securing peace by aiding indigenous, mostly non-governmental, civil society and media organizations. OTI uses such mechanisms as support for re-integration of ex-combatants into civilian society; development of initiatives to promote national reconciliation; identification of quick-impact community self-help projects to meet urgent economic needs; and aid to independent media outlets and community-based organizations to help promote informed debate and broaden public participation.
To respond quickly and effectively and meet its program objectives and mandate OTI retains a group of high level professionals and experts under U.S. Personal Services Contracts (USPSCs). These knowledgeable and skilled professionals make up the vast majority of the OTI work force and are at its forefront implementing and achieving the office's programmatic goals and objectives. Some of these USPSCs serve on intermittent contracts and are referred to in OTI as "bullpenners," providing support in a surge capacity. Those serving in the bullpen must be prepared to work both in Washington and the field, often with little time for preparations. There are several benefits that USPSCs may participate in, such as partial reimbursement for health and life insurance costs, as well as full coverage of workers' compensation, among other benefits. For more complete information on USPSC benefits, please see Section VI of this solicitation.
For more information about OTI and its country programs please see: http://www.usaid.gov/political-transition-initiatives
The Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance (DCHA)/OTI Program Office provides OTI with strategic guidance on country-level and office-level budgeting, strategy, and program performance issues, and increases key stakeholder awareness of and support for OTI as a key instrument in carrying out U.S. foreign policy objectives. The Program Office maintains technical oversight of the Support Which Implements Fast Transitions (SWIFT) IQC as well as all other non-personnel acquisition and assistance awards, and manages coordination of programming within the Foreign Assistance (F) framework. The Program Office plays a key role in the initial country assessment process, periodic country program and management reviews, and final evaluations. The Program Office also provides support to ongoing country programs through managing country budgeting decisions and allocation of resources, and setting standards and providing guidance on strategic planning, decision-making, and implementation. In addition, the Program Office provides reports on country activities for DCHA, Office of Management and Budget, Department of State, and Congress.
The Program Office serves as a central processing point for budgetary and programmatic information, and also provides guidance and standardization of OTI and USAID-wide policies and regulations. The Program Office has regular interaction with country program teams, and reports directly to the Senior Leadership Team (SLT). The Program Office supports country program operations through improved strategic thinking, planning, and decision-making; instituting strategic budgeting; facilitating the design and procurement of new implementation mechanisms; and strengthening reporting, communications and outreach.
The Senior Management Advisor is an expert in the multitude of functions that comprise program procurement and operations for USAID's Office of Transition Initiatives programs in the field, and also in the U.S. The Senior Management Advisor provides services which require the highest level of professionalism, knowledge, diplomacy, and expertise. This individual must be readily available to provide the required services on an intermittent basis, often on short notice with little time for preparation. OTI field offices are located in countries with complex problems, often in difficult and harsh environments, with some offices located in countries with no other USAID presence. The Senior Management Advisor reports to the Program Office Team Leader or his or her designee, and spends the majority of his or her time supporting OTI country program implementation teams in the Field and in Washington. All of the field activities supported and the majority of the headquarters activities supported are transition program implementation-focused.
CORE FUNCTIONAL AREAS OF RESPONSIBILITY
DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
The work of the Senior Management Advisor requires teamwork, the exercise of discretion, judgment, and personal responsibility. As a member of a highly operational office, the incumbent is willing and able to perform a wide range of administrative functions to help ensure programmatic success. The incumbent has a high level of integrity and attention to detail to ensure the use of OTI systems and procedures to maintain effective and efficient management of funds, programming, and monitoring and evaluation. The incumbent is highly flexible and willing to work under conditions of ongoing change, and remains professional and respectful of colleagues and authority in a diverse workforce. She or he places a premium on the building of positive relationships with his or her respective team both in the field and in Washington, and with key stakeholders both in and outside of USAID. The incumbent is able to prioritize and complete tasks without follow-up by the supervisor, while also filling in gaps as needed to ensure the responsiveness of the team. The Senior Management Advisor is a strategic thinker, articulates innovative ideas, presents solutions, and is a positive role model for colleagues both in and outside of OTI.
Under the direct supervision of the DCHA/OTI Program Office Team Leader or his/her designee, the Senior Management Advisor will perform the following duties:
At the GS-15 Senior Management Advisor level:
The position requires services both in the many countries in which OTI has field offices implementing country programs, and in OTI/Washington. Specifically, the Senior Management Advisor will perform the following duties:
• Analyze procurement policy options often in situations that have no precedence. Necessary analytical skills will require highly specialized experience and thorough understanding of relevant regulations. Remain updated on latest changes to regulations;
• Provide advice on ongoing contract and procurement issues for OTI country program staff, such as suggesting and reviewing proposed formats that provide more flexible contractual review and approvals in the field, while remaining in full compliance with procurement regulations;
• Be readily available on an intermittent basis to provide OTI with advice and assistance on OTI and government management policies and systems at all levels of the organization;
• Have in-depth knowledge of assistance and acquisition as it relates to field programming to ensure maximum impact of programs while containing costs to the Agency;
• Serve as a procurement analyst for OTI transition programs in the field and in Washington;
• When required, step into a range of roles, including procurement technical evaluation committees, strategic planning, and oversight roles, as well as the highest of leadership and management positions in OTI, helping to fill program and procurement implementation and management gaps to ensure that OTI programs continue to run smoothly;
• Determine and/or identify procurement and program service providers for OTI Field Teams;
• Determine appropriate actions and solutions to procurement and contractual management issues and challenges for both OTI Field and Washington Teams;
• Assess the procurement policies and procedures of OTI Washington and field offices and provide guidance and solutions to problems as appropriate;
• At times, be available as a resource for other USAID offices or USG agencies when the work corresponds with the incumbent's experience, the scope of work, and with the clearance of the Supervisor and Office Director;
• Review all OTI current and planned procurement processes supporting country program activities, including Indefinite Quantity Contracts (IQC), Purchase Orders, Cooperative Agreements, and Small Business IQCs to determine current capabilities and to recommend changes and modifications that will improve effectiveness of procurement planning for country programs;
• Coordinate with OAA and, when necessary, with USAID field Missions to ensure that adequate analysis of procurement issues has been conducted and that appropriate solutions are supported by Agency and U.S. government contracting regulations; • Advise on the initiation of new procurement mechanisms, including indefinite quantity contracts, cooperative agreements, purchase orders, or other procurement formats that will support OTI country program work, and will ensure that the U.S. government may utilize the most cost-effective procurement mechanisms that are appropriate for individualized situations and country program needs;
• Advise on, and if necessary coordinate, procurement activities and issues between OTI and OAA and Missions in the field, implementing partners, as well as D.C., USAID geographic bureaus, the Bureau for Policy, Planning and Learning, and Management Bureau on occasion;
• Coordinate with the OTI Regional Team, Country Team, OAA, Mission or other USG entity to ensure that OTI field programs are able to execute country program objectives through procurement structures that are flexible and responsive to evolving needs of the country program;
• Communicate with senior USAID and Department of State officials as appropriate to affect procurement decisions directly impacting OTI programming;
• Develop relationships with USAID Mission senior management to ensure that OTI acquisition and assistance strategic planning and new initiatives related to OTI country programming are in sync with existing and new procurement policy;
• Develop and provide training modules and products for headquarters and field staff (both U.S. and foreign national as well as implementing partner staff) as needed to ensure that OTI staff have a full understanding of all Agency procurement procedures and regulations affecting their work;
• Determine or define mechanisms and levels of procurement and program support for OTI Field Teams;
• As needed, advise OTI managers on OTI and Agency procurement policies and issues and advise OTI country program staff on agency policies and regulations relating to procurement in a multitude of contexts;
• Take initiative, act independently, and manage tasks with minimal supervision. Work with supervisor to develop deadlines, projects and work to be accomplished. Supervisor will set overall objectives.
SUPERVISORY RELATIONSHIP:The Senior Management Advisor will take direction from and will report to the Program Office Team Lead or his/her designee.
SUPERVISORY CONTROLS:The supervisor will provide administrative directions in terms of broadly defined missions or functions. The employee will independently plan, design and carry out programs, projects, studies or other work assignments. The employee's work will be considered technically authoritative and normally accepted without significant change, and will be reviewed in terms of fulfillment of program objectives, influence on the overall program, or contribution to the advancement of the objective.
10. PHYSICAL DEMANDS
PHYSICAL DEMANDS:While in Washington, the work is generally sedentary and does not pose undue physical demands. While traveling overseas, there may be some additional physical exertion including long periods of standing, walking over rough terrain, or carrying of moderately heavy items (less than 50 pounds).
WORK ENVIRONMENT:While in Washington, the work is generally performed in an office environment. While traveling overseas, the work may additionally involve special safety and/or security precautions, wearing of protective equipment, and exposure to severe weather conditions.
11. POINT OF CONTACT:
OTI Recruitment Team529 14th Street, NW, Suite 300Washington, DC 20045Telephone Number: (202) 836-7487E-Mail Address: OTIjobs@usaid.gov
II. MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS REQUIRED FOR THIS POSITION(Determines basic eligibility for the position. Applicants who do not meet all of the education and experience factors are considered NOT qualified for the position. See detailed instructions for demonstrating Education/Experience under "Applying")
At a minimum, the applicant must have:
(1) A Master's Degree with thirteen (13) years of work experience;
A Bachelor's Degree with fifteen (15) years of work experience;
(2) Minimum of nine (9) years of experience in progressively complex operations management or administrative management positions that have included contracts and procurement, other related functions, of which five (5) years must have been overseas, working in a development context, and in a supervisory management capacity;
(3) Demonstrated knowledge of U.S. government acquisition and assistance regulations, especially as applied in overseas settings in developing or crisis countries.
SELECTION FACTORS:(Determines basic eligibility for the position. Applicants who do not meet all of the selection factors are considered NOT qualified for the position.)• Applicant is a U.S. Citizen;• Complete resume submitted. See cover page for resume requirements. Experience that cannot be quantified will not be counted towards meeting the solicitation requirements;• Supplemental document specifically addressing how the candidate meets each of the Evaluation Factors submitted; • Ability to obtain a SECRET level security clearance (NOTE: Dual citizens may be asked to renounce second-country citizenship);• Satisfactory verification of academic credentials.
A USAID Secret level security clearance is required prior to issuance of the contract for this position.
NOTE: If a full security investigation package is not submitted by the selected within 30 days after it is requested, the offer may be rescinded. If a security clearance is not able to be obtained within four months after the selected submits the initial security clearance documentation, the offer may be rescinded.
Due to anticipated program needs, individuals should be able to travel to post within 60 days after a contract is awarded.
III. EVALUATION FACTORS
EVALUATION FACTORS:(Used to determine the competitive ranking of qualified applicants in comparison to other applicants. The factors are listed in priority order from highest to least.)
Applicants should cite specific, illustrative examples for each factor. Responses must be limited to 500 words per factor. Any additional words above the limit will neither be read nor scored.
Factor #1 Demonstrated experience with Federal acquisition and assistance policies, practices and procedures in contracts and grants relating to implementation of foreign assistance activities.
Factor #2 Experience with developing, or managing or advising on Indefinite Quantity Contracts (IQCs), particularly those incorporating grants under contract, in support of crisis or political transition programs overseas.
BASIS OF RATING: Applicants who clearly meet the Education/Experience Requirements and Selection Factors will be further evaluated based on scoring of the Evaluation Factor responses. Applicants are required to address each of the Evaluation Factors in a separate document describing specifically and accurately what experience, training, education and/or awards they have received that are relevant to each factor. Be sure to include your name and the announcement number at the top of each additional page. Failure to specifically address the Selection and/or Evaluation Factors may result in your not receiving credit for all of your pertinent experience, education, training and/or awards.
The Applicant Rating System is as Follows:Evaluation Factors have been assigned the following points:Factor #1 - 30Factor #2 - 30Total Possible - 60 Points
Interview Performance - 40 points
Satisfactory Professional Reference Checks - Pass/Fail (no points assigned)
Total Possible Points: 100
The most qualified candidates may be interviewed, required to provide a writing sample, and demonstrate an ability to operate commonly used office applications. OTI will not pay for any expenses associated with the interviews. In addition, applications (written materials and interviews) will be evaluated based on content as well as on the applicant's writing, presentation, and communication skills. In the event that a candidate has fully demonstrated his/her qualifications and there are no other competitive applicants, OTI reserves the right to forego the interview process. Professional references and academic credentials will be evaluated for applicants being considered for selection.
Applications must be received by the closing date and time at the address specified in Section I, item 3, and submitted to the Point of Contact in Section I, item 11.
Qualified applicants are required to submit:
1. Complete resume. In order to fully evaluate your application, your resume must include:
(a) Paid and non-paid experience, job title, location(s), dates held (month/year), and hours worked per week for each position. Dates (month/year) and locations for all overseas field experience must also be detailed. Any experience that does not include dates (month/year), locations, and hours per week will not be counted towards meeting the solicitation requirements.(b) Specific duties performed that fully detail the level and complexity of the work. (c) Names and contact information (phone and email) of your current and/or previous supervisor(s). (d) Education and any other qualifications including job-related training courses, job-related skills, or job-related honors, awards or accomplishments. (e) U.S. Citizenship.
Your resume should contain explicit information to make a valid determination that you fully meet the experience requirements as stated in this solicitation. This information should be clearly identified in your resume. Failure to provide explicit information to determine your qualifications for the position will result in loss of full consideration.
2. Supplemental document specifically addressing:Each of the two (2) Evaluation Factors shown in the solicitation. Responses must be limited to 500 words per factor. Any additional words above the limit will neither be read nor scored.
NOTE: The Evaluation Factors are worth 60 out of 100 points. Applicants are required to address each of the Evaluation Factors in a separate document describing specifically and accurately what experience, training, education and/or awards they have received that are relevant to each factor.
3. USPSC Application form AID 302-3. Applicants are required to complete and sign the form. This form must be physically signed. Electronic signatures will not be accepted.
Additional documents submitted will not be accepted.
To ensure consideration of applications for the intended position, applicants must prominently reference the solicitation number in the application submission.
Applicant resources are available at www.otijobs.net/#!guidance-for-applying/c1ggu.
Via mail: Office of Transition Initiatives, 529 14th Street, NW, Suite 300, Washington, D.C. 20045Via email: OTIjobs@usaid.gov
Please note in your document submittal where you heard about this position.
NOTE REGARDING GOVERNMENT OBLIGATIONS FOR THIS SOLICITATION
This solicitation in no way obligates USAID to award a PSC contract, nor does it commit USAID to pay any cost incurred in the preparation and submission of the application.
NOTE REGARDING DATA UNIVERSAL NUMBERING SYSTEM (DUNS) NUMBERS AND THE SYSTEM FOR AWARD MANAGEMENT
In accordance with FAR 4.1102, USPSCs must be registered in SAM prior to award, except for contracts with individuals for performance outside the U.S. and its outlying areas as indicated in FAR 4.1102(a)(4.) (see 309.3.1.f). USAID will provide a generic DUNS Number for all individuals working outside of the United States.
For general information about DUNS Numbers and SAM, please refer to Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Clause 52.204-6, Data Universal Numbering System (DUNS) Number and FAR 52.204-7, System for Award Management.https:/acquisition.gov/far/current/html/52_200_206.html or www.sam.gov.
ALL QUALIFIED APPLICANTS WILL BE CONSIDERED REGARDLESS OF AGE, RACE, COLOR, SEX, CREED, NATIONAL ORIGIN, LAWFUL POLITICAL AFFILIATION, NON-DISQUALIFYING DISABILITY, MARITAL STATUS, SEXUAL ORIENTATION, AFFILIATION WITH AN EMPLOYEE ORGANIZATION, OR OTHER NON-MERIT FACTOR.
V. LIST OF REQUIRED FORMS FOR PSC HIRES
Once the CO informs the successful applicant about being selected for a contract award, the CO will provide the successful applicant instructions about how to complete and submit the following forms. Forms outlined below can found at http://www.usaid.gov/forms/
1. Declaration for Federal Employment (OF-306).2. Medical History and Examination Form (DS-6561). 3. Questionnaire for Sensitive Positions (for National Security) (SF-86), or Questionnaire for Non-Sensitive Positions (SF-85). 4. Finger Print Card (FD-258).
As a matter of policy, and as appropriate, a PSC is normally authorized the following benefits and allowances:
(a) Employer's FICA Contribution(b) Contribution toward Health & Life Insurance(c) Pay Comparability Adjustment(d) Annual Increase (pending a satisfactory performance evaluation)(e) Eligibility for Worker's Compensation(f) Annual & Sick Leave
2. ALLOWANCES:Section numbers refer to rules from the Department of State Standardized Regulations (Government Civilians Foreign Areas)
(a) Post Differential Chapter 500 and Tables in Chapter 900.(b) Living Quarters Allowance Section 130.(c) Temporary Lodging Allowance Section 120.(d) Post Allowance Section 220.(e) Supplemental Post Allowance Section 230.(f) Payments During Evacuation Section 600.(g) Education Allowance Section 270.(h) Separate Maintenance Allowance Section 260.(i) Danger Pay Allowance Section 650.(j) Education Travel Section 280.
USPSCs are required to pay Federal Income Taxes, FICA, and Medicare
VIII. ACQUISITION & ASSISTANCE POLICY DIRECTIVES (AAPDS) AND CONTRACT INFORMATION BULLETINS (CIBS) PERTAINING TO PSCs
AAPDs and CIBs contain changes to USAID policy and General Provisions in USAID regulations and contracts. Please refer to http://www.usaid.gov/work-usaid/aapds-cibs#psc to determine which AAPDs and CIBs apply to this contract.
AAPD 06-10 - PSC MEDICAL EXPENSE PAYMENT RESPONSIBILITY
General Provision 28, MEDICAL EXPENSE PAYMENT RESPONSIBILITY(OCTOBER 2006)
(a) Definitions. Terms used in this General Provision are defined in 16 FAM 116 available at http://www.state.gov/m/a/dir/regs/fam/16fam/index.htm. Note: Personal services contractors are not eligible to participate in the Federal Employees Health Programs.
(b) The regulations in the Foreign Affairs Manual, Volume 16, Chapter 520 (16 FAM 520), Responsibility for Payment of Medical Expenses, apply to this contract, except as stated below. The contractor and each eligible family member are strongly encouraged to obtain health insurance that covers this assignment. Nothing in this provision supersedes or contradicts any other term or provision in this contract that pertains to insurance or medical costs, except that section (e) supplements General Provision 25. "MEDICAL EVACUATION (MEDEVAC) SERVICES."
(c) When the contractor or eligible family member is covered by health insurance, that insurance is the primary payer for medical services provided to that contractor or eligible family member(s) both in the United States and abroad. The primary insurer's liability is determined by the terms, conditions, limitations, and exclusions of the insurance policy. When the contractor or eligible family member is not covered by health insurance, the contractor is the primary payer for the total amount of medical costs incurred and the U.S. Government has no payment obligation (see paragraph (f) of this provision).
(d) USAID serves as a secondary payer for medical expenses of the contractor and eligible family members who are covered by health insurance, where the following conditions are met:
(1) The illness, injury, or medical condition giving rise to the expense is incurred, caused, or materially aggravated while the eligible individual is stationed or assigned abroad;
(2) The illness, injury, or medical condition giving rise to the expense required or requires hospitalization and the expense is directly related to the treatment of such illness, injury, or medical condition, including obstetrical care; and
(3) The Office of Medical Services (M/MED) or a Foreign Service medical provider (FSMP) determines that the treatment is appropriate for, and directly related to, the illness, injury, or medical condition.
(e) The Mission Director may, on the advice of M/MED or an FSMP at post, authorize medical travel for the contractor or an eligible family member in accordance with the General Provision 10, Travel and Transportation Expenses (July 1993), section (i) entitled "Emergency and Irregular Travel and Transportation." In the event of a medical emergency, when time does not permit consultation, the Mission Director may issue a Travel Authorization Form or Medical Services Authorization Form DS-3067, provided that the FSMP or Post Medical Advisor (PMA) is notified as soon as possible following such an issuance. The contractor must promptly file a claim with his or her medevac insurance provider and repay to USAID any amount the medevac insurer pays for medical travel, up to the amount USAID paid under this section. The contractor must repay USAID for medical costs paid by the medevac insurer in accordance with sections (f) and (g) below. In order for medical travel to be an allowable cost under General Provision 10, the contractor must provide USAID written evidence that medevac insurance does not cover these medical travel costs.
(f) If the contractor or eligible family member is not covered by primary health insurance, the contractor is the primary payer for the total amount of medical costs incurred. In the event of a medical emergency, the Medical and Health Program may authorize issuance of Form DS-3067, Authorization for Medical Services for Employees and/or Dependents, to secure admission to a hospital located abroad for the uninsured contractor or eligible family member. In that case, the contractor will be required to reimburse USAID in full for funds advanced by USAID pursuant to the issuance of the authorization. The contractor may reimburse USAID directly or USAID may offset the cost from the contractor's invoice payments under this contract, any other contract the individual has with the U.S. Government, or through any other available debt collection mechanism.
(g) When USAID pays medical expenses (e.g., pursuant to Form DS-3067, Authorization for Medical Services for Employees and/or Dependents), repayment must be made to USAID either by insurance payment or directly by the contractor, except for the amount of such expenses USAID is obligated to pay under this provision. The Contracting Officer will determine the repayment amount in accordance with the terms of this provision and the policies and procedures for employees contained in 16 FAM 521. When USAID pays the medical expenses, including medical travel costs (see section (e) above), of an individual (either the contractor or an eligible family member) who is covered by insurance, that individual promptly must claim his or her benefits under any applicable insurance policy or policies. As soon as the individual receives the insurance payment, the contractor must reimburse USAID for the full amount that USAID paid on the individual's behalf or the repayment amount determined by the Contracting Officer in accordance with this paragraph, whichever is less. If an individual is not covered by insurance, the contractor must reimburse USAID for the entire amount of all medical expenses and any travel costs the contractor receives from his/her medevac provider.
(h) In the event that the contractor or eligible family member fails to recover insurance payments or transfer the amount of such payments to USAID within 90 days, USAID will take appropriate action to collect the payments due, unless such failure is for reasons beyond the control of the USPSC/dependent.
(i) Before departing post or terminating the contract, the contractor must settle all medical expense and medical travel costs. If the contractor is insured, he or she must provide proof to the Contracting Officer that those insurance claims have been submitted to the insurance carrier(s) and sign a repayment agreement to repay to USAID any amounts paid by the insurance carrier(s).